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The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines extreme heat as “summertime temperatures that are substantially hotter and/or more humid than average for location at that time of year”.  The year 2014 was the hottest in modern history and more hot weather may well be on the way.   Extreme heat and high temperatures can lead to health issues and eventually death if not properly addressed.  Young children, older adults, those who are sick and/or overweight are even more likely to succumb to the effects of extreme heat and temperature.  There are things one can do now, however, to mitigate against the effects of extreme heat.  The following is an introductory guide to doing just that.

Extreme Heat: General Preparation

  • Having air conditioning installed at home or place of business is a good starting point.  The system must be in good repair and installed properly.
  • All air-conditioning ducts should be inspected for proper insulation.
  • Do not rely upon fans as a primary source of cooling.
  • On a temporary basis, window reflectors can be installed to reflect heat back outside.
  • Be sure to cover windows that receive sun with drapes, shades, or other coverings.
  • Outdoor awnings or louvers can also reduce the heat significantly.
  • Weather-stripping can be installed on doors and window sills to keep cool air in the building.
  • During a heat emergency, limit your exposure to the sun as much as possible.
  • Cooling showers or baths may be taken to reduce body heat.
  • Be sure to drink plenty of water.  Hydration is key to survival.  For those with medical conditions that require a fluid-restricted diet, consult with your family physician first.  Note very cold beverages can lead to stomach cramping.
  • Beverages containing caffeine, alcohol, or large amounts of sugar should be avoided.
  • If possible, have a backup source of water available at all times.  A sudden stoppage of the normal supply of water could be catastrophic during an extreme heat event.
  • In addition to having backup sources of water, consider obtaining the equipment and skills to filter and purify your own water from natural sources.
  • Wear sun screen and appropriate clothing for the weather.
  • Be sure to eat a well-balanced, and preferably light, meals during the event.
  • If possible, avoid hard work during the hottest part of the day.
  • At no time leave small children or animals alone in a closed vehicle.  Temperatures in such enclosed spaces can climb from 78° to 120° F in under eight minutes.
  • Be sure that any animals you have (e.g., pets, livestock, etc.) have proper shade and access to water.
  • If one own a mobile device (e.g., a smartphone, tablet, etc.), consider install the free American Red Cross Emergency App.  The app contains information on preparing for and coping during a heat wave.  Alternatively, with the proper tools, the free app may also be run on a Mac OS based machine or on Windows based device.
  • Be sure to check on people you know, such as friends, family, neighbors, etc., that do not have air conditioning, are elderly, have small children, or have medical conditions that may be adversely effected by extreme heat.  Be prepared to render first aid should they require said.
  • Stay informed by tuning into the radio or Internet sources for updates on the heat wave.

Heat-Induced Illnesses

There are a number of heat-induced illnesses that the reader should be aware of.  Some are similar, but each have unique symptoms and treatments.  The American Red Cross, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), local emergency management organizations, citizens-organized groups (e.g., The American Civil Defense Association, etc.), and others all can provide training for addressing heat-induced illnesses.  However, in brief, the conditions that should be noted are:

Heat Exhaustion:  Heat exhaustion can result in heavy sweating, but the skin may be cool to the touch.  Additionally, the victim may have a weak pulse and experience nausea, dizziness, headaches,  and vomiting.

Heat exhaustion can be treated by having the victim loosen or remove clothing articles, lie down in a cool place, and apply cool, wet cloths.  An air conditioned location is best for treatment.  The victim can be given small, even sips of cool water, but no more than half a glass every fifteen minutes.  Should vomiting occur, stop administering water, and seek medical treatment immediately.

Heat Cramps:  Heat cramps are painful spasms that typically occur in the abdominal muscles and legs.

A victim of heat cramps can be treated by moving to a cool location and gently massaging and stretching the affected muscles.  As with heat exhaustion, small sips of water can be administered, but must be stopped if the victim feels nauseated.  When in doubt, seek medical treatment.

Sunburn: Sunburn usually manifests with skin redness, irritation, and pain.  Blisters and swelling may also be present.  Secondary symptoms include headaches, fever, and disorientation.

Mild sunburns can be treated by taking a cool shower.  If blistering occurs, apply sterile, dry dressings and seek medical attention.

Heat Stroke:  Heat strokes is a very serious medical condition in which the victim’s temperature control system stops working.  It can feature high body temperatures (105°+ F), a rapid and weak pulse, and shallow breathing.  If a victim is exhibiting these signs, do not administer water and do not delay in calling 9-1-1 or other emergency medical services.  A delay may prove fatal.  Until medical help arrives, the victim can be moved to a cool location and remove unnecessary clothing.  The victim’s should be monitored for breathing problems.

The preceding has been a short introductory guide to the topic of extreme heat.  Additional material may be accessed in the sources listed below.  If the reader wishes to discuss extreme heat preparation, or other disaster related topics, the free forum is available here.  Sign up is quick and easy.


  1. Extreme Heat Prevention Guide – Part 1. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  2. NASA, NOAA Find 2014 Warmest Year in Modern Record. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  3. Harrison, K. (2008). Wildfires. In Just in Case: How to Be Self-sufficient When the Unexpected Happens (pp. 118-119). North Adams, MA: Storey Pub.
  4. Are you ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (pp. 85-92). (2002). Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
  5. Warning Signs and Symptoms of Heat-Related Illness. (2011, June 20). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  6. Heat Wave Safety Tips | Heat Illness Prevention | American Red Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  7. TACDA ACADEMY – CIVIL DEFENSE BASICS 1 9. WATER PURIFICATION. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  8. Heat Wave Safety Tips | Heat Illness Prevention | American Red Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2015, from
  9. Rosdahl, C., & Kowalski, M. (2008). Textbook of Basic Nursing (9th ed., pp. 465-466). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  10. Schwartz, R. (2008). Tactical Emergency Medicine (pp. 84-87). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  11. Heat and alcohol–a dangerous combination. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  12. Extreme Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  13. Sunburn | Doctor | (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  14. (2013, June 10). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from
  15. Extreme Heat Tip Sheet for Individuals. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2015, from

extreme heat

A blizzard is an extreme form of winter storm.  It is categorized by massive snowfall and sustained winds of at least 35 miles per hour.  In addition to these parameters, the National Weather Service (NWS) also adds that it is a snow storm lasting three or more hours.

As a blizzard is marked by extreme cold, high winds, and reduced visibility, they can present unique challenges and dangers.  Heavy snowfall can result in vehicle accidents, collapsed roofs, disrupted distribution systems, damaged power and communication systems, the death of pets and livestock, and serious injury or death to those caught outside.  The following guide will assist the reader in being prepared for blizzards and related winter weather.

Be Informed about Winter Storms

First and foremost, one must be aware that such a weather pattern is on the way.  Serious winter storm conditions are generally known days in advance, so one can prepare and adjust plans accordingly.  Governmental authorities, as well as members of the scientific community often provide guidance in the days before a blizzard occurs.  Be sure to tune in your radio or television for regular updates.  The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also broadcasts information on a continual basis.  These broadcasts may be listened to on the Internet or with a radio receiver.

Preparing for Blizzards

There are steps that can be taken today to reduce the risk of injury or loss of property due to severe winter weather.  These include:

  • Know the signs and symptoms of hypothermia and frostbite.  The American Red Cross has information on these life threatening condition.
  • Consider installing or obtaining a generator for emergency electricity.  Note:  never run a generator indoors as the carbon monoxide can kill.
  • Winterizing one’s home, business, barn, etc., will help with extreme winter weather and makes good economic sense.
  • Supplies should be available before the storm arrives.  These include:
    • Plenty of food items.  Food that require little heating and water are best.
    • A first aid kit.
    • Warm clothing, blankets and other bedding should be on hand.
    • Have snow shovels on hand.  Rock salt or an alternative can aid in the melting of snow and ice.
    • Sand can improve the traction of vehicles.
    • Enough heating fuel (e.g., firewood, propane, etc.) should be on hand for many days of bad weather.  During particularly bad weather, one cannot rely upon delivery of fuel.
    • Emergency lighting (e.g., candles, oil lamps, etc.).
    • Prescription medications should be refilled before a storm.
    • A radio to receive updates is necessary.
    • A snow rake is helpful to have on hand to safely remove snow from your roof.
  • If one absolute must travel, the vehicle should be prepared beforehand.
    • All systems should be in good working order at the correct levels.
    • All fluids should be at the correct level.  The antifreeze levels are particularly important.
    • Good, all weather tires should be installed on the vehicle.
    • For icy conditions, studded tires or snow chains are a necessity.
    • Emergency-related items should be in the vehicle at all times.  These include:
      • Nonperishable, light, but calorie-dense food items.  These include protein bars, jerky, MRE entrées and the like.
      • Bottled water
      • A flashlight.
      • Road flares.
      • Jumper cables.
      • Ice scrapers or a canned deicing agent.
      • A shovel.
      • A basic first aid kit.
      • Emergency blankets or a sleeping bag.
      • Cat litter for traction.
      • A tool kit.
      • Cellular telephone.
      • Citizen Band radio.
      • A small pocket knife.
      • Small hygiene items.
      • Snow chains if studded tires are not installed.
      • Warm clothing and related articles (e.g., gloves, hat, etc.).
      • A road map or GPS system.

After a Winter Storm Strikes

Waiting Out the Winter Storm

Once a blizzard has struck in your area, it is important to have taken shelter.  If outside for any reason, adequate clothing should be worn at all times.  While waiting out the storm:

  • Conserve fuel as the duration of the storm may not be known.
  • Monitor the progress of the storm by listening to radio broadcasts, television news, and/or a NOAA Weather Radio.
  • Eat regularly and stay hydrated.
  • Watch for any signs of hypothermia or frostbite.
  • If power is lost and a backup generator is utilized, be sure the vapors are ventilated properly.
  • Take care when using oil lamps and candles as a backup lighting source.
  • If you have livestock be sure they are properly sheltered.
  • Travel only if it is absolutely necessary.
  • If traveling and you are trapped in your vehicle:
    • Remain in your vehicle.  Do not leave unless you are sure you can reach a warm building.
    • Activate your emergency/hazard lights to alert rescuers.  Turning on the interior lights may also alert rescue workers to your location.
    • If you have a Citizen Band radio installed, you can try to call for assistance on Channel 9.
    • If you are within range of a cellular tower, you can attempt to call for assistance by phone.
    • Drink water, juice, or other fluids to stay hydrated.
    • Stay warm in blankets, sleeping bags, and mylar blankets.  If with other people, huddle together to share warmth.

If you wish to discuss surviving during a blizzard or other disaster-related topics, consider joining the free forum.


  1. Sims, J. (2013). The No-Nonsense Guide To Blizzard Safety. Cork: BookBaby.
  2. Glossary – NOAA’s National Weather Service. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2015, from
  3. The American Civil Defense Association.  Cold Weather Survival. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from
  4. Winter Storms & Extreme Cold. (2014, August 27). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from
  5. Allen, J. (2002). Blizzards (pp. 11-17). Mankato, Minn.: Capstone High-Interest Books.
  6. Oliver, J. (2005). Encyclopedia of World Climatology (p. 165). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  7. Are you ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (pp. 80-85). (2002). Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
  8. Singh, D. (2014). Winter Survival Kit. In A Beginner’s Guide to Winter Survival – How to Survive Cold Weather (pp. 22-27).
  9. Winter Storm Preparedness. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2015, from
  10. There’s No Business Like Snow Business This Winter. (2011, February 4). Retrieved February 13, 2015, from

winter storm

Wildfires (also known as a brush fire, forest fire, desert fire, or vegetation fire) are uncontrolled fires in areas in which combustible vegetation can be found.  Practicing good fire safety is paramount when wildfires may be imminent. These fires can be started by natural occurrences, such as lightning and volcanic eruptions, or by man-made sources, such as accidents, carelessness, military action, terrorist activity, or arson.  Droughts, heat waves, and climate changes can impact the behavior of wildfires.

According to a recent study, wildfires, and related burns, kill 339,000 people worldwide every year.  The majority of the recorded deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa, followed by southeast Asia.  The death toll is lower in the United States and Canada, but property damage is in the multiple billions annually.  Millions of acres are consumed each year by wildfires.

The largest, though not deadliest, wildfire in American history was Great Fire of 1910.  It was dubbed the Big Burn and approximately three million acres in Idaho, Montana, and Washington state.  Eighty-seven individuals, mostly firefighters, lost their life in the event.  The largest wildfire in North America was the 1950 Chinchaga fire in British Columbia and Alberta, which destroyed around 3.5 million acres.

While a fearsome force of nature, there are preparations that private citizens and home owners can take today to help mitigate against the ravages of wildfires.  The following are some steps to take before and during a wildfire event.

Fire Safety – Preparing for a Wildfire

  • Read up on the the dangers of wildfires and how to be prepared.  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), state level organizations, the American Red Cross, and citizen-initiated groups all publish material on the topic.
  • If you have a mobile device, consider installing a free, real time wildfires app such as that published by the American Red Cross.
  • Practice good fire safety in general:
    • Install smoke alarms in your home and business, if they are not already in place.  Fully functional smoke alarms have been shown to decrease the chances of dying from a fire by fifty percent.  Each level of a home or business should have a smoke alarm.  Smoke alarms should be tested each month and the batteries changed once a year.  After a smoke alarm has been in service for ten years, replace it with a new unit.
    • Have fire extinguishers available in places where they are handy, especially in locations prone to fires such as the kitchen, laundry room, etc.  Make sure they are checked regularly.  In many communities, the fire department will do this for free.
    • Be sure to have an escape route planned and discussed with your family.  Fire safety practice runs are not a bad idea either.
    • Escape ladders for upper story rooms are essential.
    • Make sure all windows are able to open properly in the event of a fire.
    • Insure all members of the family are familiar with the procedure to stay low to the floor when escaping a fire.  Also, make sure everyone in the household is familiar with the Stop, drop, and roll procedure in the event their clothing is on fire.
    • Reduce clutter, such as old papers, trash, periodicals, etc., as these are fire hazards and represent poor fire safety.  This goes doubly so for flammable materials such as gasoline, kerosene, benzine, motor oil, etc.
    • If you smoke, make sure to never do so near flammable materials and ensure that the cigarette or cigar is properly put out when finished.  Dousing is the best method to extinguish such items, but deep ashtrays work as well.  Never smoke in bed.  Smoking related materials remain the leading cause of death by fire in the United States.
    • Make sure that matches, lighters, candles, and other such items are out of the reach of children.  Small children are curious about such articles and they may inadvertently start a fire.
    • If within your budget, consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system and/or install a home security system that monitors for fire.
    • If there is any doubt as to the state of your electrical wiring, have the system inspected by a licensed electrician.
    • In many communities, the fire department will do a free walk through and inspection of your home.  If available, it is worth having the inspection completed.
  • Make sure your home or business has the entrance marked with an easy-to-see sign so that emergency vehicles can locate you easily.
  • Ensure that water sources, such as fire hydrants, swimming pools, etc., are accessible by the fire department.
  • Ensure that your yard, garden, shrubs, and trees are kept well maintained.  Remove debris, dead wood, leaves and other combustible material around at least a 30 foot radius around your home or business.  Consider planting fire-resistant vegetation.
  • Firewood should be stacked at a distance from your home.  Thirty feet or more is best for maximum fire safety.
  • Using fire resistant materials for roofing can reduce the risk to your home or business.  The installation of fire-resistant drapes can add an additional protection.
  • Cover exterior vents and eaves with a ¼ inch metal mesh screens to keep sparks out.
  • Flammable materials, such as fuels, lubricants, grease, oil-based paint, solvents, etc., should be stored in metal containers and be located at least 30 feet away from structures and other wood material.
  • Have tools on hand, such as shovels, rakes, axes, etc., to fight small fires until responders can arrive.
  • If a wildfire is close, lawn sprinklers can be placed on the roof and used to douse the structure.
  • Consider storing fire retardant gel to be applied in the event of a wildfire.
  • If a wildfire is close, shut off gas sources, such as natural gas, propane, etc.  Connect all garden hoses.  If available, fill any contains (e.g., pools, jacuzzis, children’s pools, trash cans, etc.) with water.
  • If you must evacuate, be prepared with the necessary supplies to do so.  The American Red Cross has a checklist available here.
  • Before leaving, close all doors inside the structure to prevent a draft.
  • Review the fire safety resources below
  • If an evacuation order is issued, do so immediately.

This has been a short, introductory guide on fire safety and things you can do to help protect yourself and your property from wildfire damage.  Additional information is available in the sources listed below.  If the reader wishes to discuss wildfire preparation, the forum is available here.  Sign up is quick, easy, and completely free.


  1. Silverstein, A., & Silverstein, V. (2010). Wildfires: The Science Behind Raging Infernos. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
  2. Wildfire | U.S. Drought Portal. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  3. Wildfire Prevention Strategies. (1998, March 1). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  4. Terrorist Interest in Using Fire as a Weapon. (2012, May 31). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  5. Sheridan, K. (2012, February 19). Wildfires kill 339,000 people per year: Study. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  6. American Experience: The Big Burn. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  7. Wildfires. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  8. Are you ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (pp. 115-122, 123-125). (2002). Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
  9. Harrison, K. (2008). Wildfires. In Just in Case: How to Be Self-sufficient When the Unexpected Happens (pp. 124-126). North Adams, MA: Storey Pub.
  10. Linton, J. (2004). Wildfires: Issues and Consequences (pp. 43-45). New York, New York: Nova Science.
  11. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  12. Wildfire Preparedness | How to Prepare for Wildfires | Red Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  13. Causes of fire. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  14. Fire retardants that protect the home. (2007, November 25). Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
  15. Home Fire Safety, from

fire safety

(Picture Above is Looking across Efate, Vanuatu before Cyclone Pam hit)

Please Note: This is a firsthand experience of Cyclone Pam slamming into Vanuatu from the perspective of a couple living on Efate, the third largest island of the chain. Cyclones, Hurricanes and Typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon, but which word is used is based upon where the event occurs – Cyclones in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, Hurricane in the North Atlantic and Pacific, and Typhoon in the Northwest Pacific.

Preparing for Cyclone Pam

We had plenty of warning from Internet based forecast services of a seriously big tropical storm heading for us. The Vanuatu Meteorological Service (VMS) refused to acknowledge the threat this system posed as it hadn’t entered their area of responsibility. Public pressure on social media eventually led to them issuing warnings before it did enter their area. This was such a large and ferocious system that many, including myself, got on to social media to warn people. This earned us insults and threats from people using the VMS Facebook name.

I can’t recall what I was feeling in the build up to the arrival of Cyclone Pam as my business is boat orientated so we obviously had a lot to do to prepare, including craning our own boat out of the water. Preparing for such a big storm took up all of my mental capacity and I really had no time to feel anything. I guess, in retrospect, I was functioning on autopilot – some natural instinct directing me to do what I was doing. Sort of like a flight or fight situation.

At one stage, as Pam drew closer, I was to be seen with a wooden carving in my hand “conducting” the storm with “big” music on the stereo.

After accepting that we were going to get a very close pass on this category 5 system we prepared the work side of our lives as best as we could. We have a cyclone rated building as a workshop and we put all business records, computers etc. into a work vehicle and parked it inside the workshop. We also left our other work vehicle inside the workshop and relied on public transport until the storm was over.

We had been through a smaller cyclone before – but on our boat in a marina and not in a house on land. For this reason we had a fairly good idea of what to expect and how to prepare with only a few adjustments for protecting ourselves in a building rather than aboard a boat. Our community is small and close knit so everyone shared their experiences of previous cyclones including lessons learnt and what to do to prepare.

A view from our back deck before Cyclone Pam hit

At our rented accommodation we discovered that they didn’t have storm shutters, and it was obvious with the large trees growing all around us we would need them to protect from flying timber. These were quickly made by our wonderful landlords and fitted in place. We brought in a 150 amp hour battery, small inverter and LED light stand to provide lighting during the cyclone itself, and a 350 watt generator to provide basic power for fridge/freezer etc. after the cyclone passed. We also brought plenty of carbohydrate based food which was easy to prepare and wouldn’t require refrigeration (we use propane for cooking) and don’t forget the coffee.

Approximately 30 litres of clean drinking water was stored in various containers as well as fuel and oil for the generator. We live within a few metres of the water so toilet flushing etc. after the cyclone was not a problem with a bucket.  All loose materials around the premises were secured; kindle, cellphone and laptop charged. We had basic first aid supplies as well as a course of antibiotics on hand.

As stated, our house is right on the water (actually a lagoon) and was facing the worst of the expected wind so we made inspections of the foundations to ensure they weren’t likely to wash away. We had many big trees around us but I figured that if they fell during the early stages, they would miss the house, and if they fell later when the wind shifted they would help keep the roof on.

The VMS had finally discovered the wonders of blanket texting just before the cyclone and started issuing warnings. What those warnings didn’t contain was the expected wind direction, so people who couldn’t read a weather map had no idea what side of their homes was vulnerable. Traditionally cyclones come in with the northwest winds here, but this one started from the southeast so many were caught off guard.

Cyclone Pam Hits Vanuata Dead On

We hunkered down at home well before the onset of Pam, confident we had preparations in hand. As the wind built throughout the day, we built our bunker inside using two sturdy tables covered with a tarpaulin to shelter our precious mementos, passports, etc as well as offering us and our two cats a final refuge should we lose the roof.

Our homemade "bunker" to protect us if our roof collapsed

Our homemade “bunker” to protect us if our roof collapsed

Around six hours before the peak was due to hit us a glancing blow with less than a hundred knots of wind, the system changed course to pass directly over us (amazingly, we still had power and internet). At this stage I made the decision to extend our bunker by using our king size bed base to form a roof with mattress underneath, all covered with a tarpaulin. Winds were now forecast to be up to 130 knots.

The build up to the storm was very long with winds starting to rise at least 18 hours before the peak. They say there are three wind noises in a storm – howling, shrieking and moaning.  For about 12 hours we had howling wind then a very short period of shrieking wind and then a couple of hours of moaning. I had never heard moaning wind before and never want to again.

As the peak happened around midnight, and we had shut ourselves in before midday with our shutters up, we weren’t able to see the storm unfolding. We could only guess what was happening as we heard flying debris hit our house. We retired to bed about three hours before the peak and actually managed to get some sleep through the worst of it. Our cozy cave was giving us a feeling of security.

We're looking out from the same deck as before, but we're missing a few trees this time.

We’re looking out from the same deck as before, but we’re missing a few trees this time.

Cleaning Up After a Category 5 Cyclone

The next morning we awoke to virtually no wind. We were in the lee of a ridge, and by then the wind shifted. Even though our house and work escaped virtually untouched, the destruction around Port Vila was extensive, and it was obvious that foreign assistance was needed immediately. Everybody has seen the photos so I won’t go into that, but I will describe the feeling around town as the first C17 Globemaster from Australia did a morale boosting low pass over town as it brought in the first planeload of aid. The sight of that plane did more for the people of Port Vila than the aid it carried.

Post cyclone cleanup demonstrated the true spirit of the South Pacific. I have not seen an outward sign of grief even though there is much to grieve over. Amongst the destruction, people are cleaning up with smiles on their faces. I even had a bus (minivan) driver refuse to take my money when I went to see if I could retrieve our work vehicles.

A Few Thoughts on What Happened

Mine and Sue’s relationship is pretty firmly founded in traditional gender roles, even though Sue is exceptionally strong when the shit hits the fan – and we have an unconventional lifestyle. I am acutely aware of my duty to protect those I love, and this places a burden on me that I am happy to shoulder. Many years at sea, and some military service, gave me confidence to know that I had done everything within my power to keep us safe.

I did however start second guessing myself when the winds were beyond anything I had experienced before and were making sounds I had never heard before. During this time, having my love by my side and trusting me was comforting.

Post cyclone cleanup demonstrated the true spirit of the South Pacific. I have not seen an outward sign of grief even though there is much to grieve over.

Could I have done more? Yes I believe I could have protected my family better by living in a temperate climate and working a 9-5 job. Do I want to experience the same forces again? No way, but I have been strengthened and educated by the experience.

The same view of Efate, but after Cyclone Pam hit. Note the missing roofs, downed trees and more.

The same view of Efate, but after Cyclone Pam hit. Note the missing roofs, downed trees and more.

The Female Perspective

Note: This section was written by Sue Green, Peter’s fiancée

Pre Cyclone Pam

We had a week to prepare for the coming of Pam, which in some ways was a bonus in terms of getting fully prepared, but on the down side it also allowed anxiety to build. It was the total topic of conversation, and being around people who were full of doom and gloom wasn’t easy. I found myself alternately being a little bit crazy (I am anyway at the best of times) and fighting anxiety attacks. At one stage, as Pam drew closer, I was to be seen with a wooden carving in my hand “conducting” the storm with “big” music on the stereo.

During Cyclone Pam

I actually felt better once she ramped up as I knew that at some point soon the waiting would be over and Pam would be over. I had faith that we were as prepared as we could be. Pete takes such things seriously and is eminently sensible during crises. Wearing ear muffs helped immensely in cutting down the frightening noise, and I tried to focus on breathing deeply and slowly to keep myself calm. One of our cats snuggled between us at the height of the storm and stroking her was soothing.

Post Cyclone Pam

The shakes and tears came when we finally got communications again and could contact friends and family. I believe that they possibly went through more of an ordeal than us – they could see and hear on the news and social media what was happening, and the not knowing if we were OK for hours/days must have been scary. We knew we were OK; they didn’t. It was certainly a relief when it was over, and in some ways I feel guilty that we were so fortunate and our damage was minuscule.

I’m Peter Wederell and my fiancée is Sue Green. Our business is Total Marine Solutions (

Sue & I met whilst working in Antarctica (the windiest place on Earth) in 2002. We brought a sailboat in 2006 and went cruising around New Zealand and the South Pacific. We eventually washed up on the shores of Vanuatu and were encouraged to start up a full service marine company which we did and have now lived here for 4 years.

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A flood is a large overflow of water beyond its normal confines that covers normally dry areas.  Flooding occurs in every state in the U.S. and in every region of Canada.  According to the National Weather Service, the average loss of life to flooding is 89 individuals a year and an astounding $8.2 Billion in damages.  Steps can be taken now to lessen the danger and damage posed by flooding.  The following is an introductory guide, resource directory and survival tips to assist the reader in being ready.

Survival Tips for Before Flooding Occurs

Some things one can do before a flood are:

  • Prepare you home before hand.
    • Modifications to the home can be done to reduce the damage caused by flooding.  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) publishes a free guide entitled Protecting Your Home And Property From Flood Damage that will help a homeowner make decisions on how best to avoid property damage and personal risk posed by flooding.  Some state level agencies also publish similar guides.
    • Avoid building new homes in floodplains.  If the building is situated in a floodplain, it must be elevated and reinforced.
    • Construct barriers (e.g., beams, floodwalls, etc.) to stop waters from entering your home.
    • Research and know the areas prone to flooding in your area.
    • Seal basement walls with waterproofing material.
    • Make sure gutters and drains are always clear.
    • Be sure to elevate electrical panels, switches, sockets, furnaces, fuel tanks, etc. if the area is susceptible to flooding.
    • Note that flood losses are not normally covered under homeowner’s insurance polices, so have proper flood insurance for your home or business.  Flood insurance is available from most local insurance agents.
  • Educate yourself on the dangers and how to avoid them.
  • Have the necessary items ready before hand.  These include:
    • An emergency kit for your home.
    • A 72-hour bag (colloquially known as a “bug out bag”) and related items for your vehicle.
    • If forced to evacuate, take important documents with you.

Survival Tips for During a Flooding Event

There are steps that can be taken shortly before and during a flooding event that will greatly reduce the risk to life and reduce damage to a home.

  • Listen to radio, television, or Internet news reports for information of weather that could result in flooding.
  • In the event of the warning of flash flooding, evacuate the area immediately and head for high ground.  Flash floods can develop and occur very rapidly, so waste no time.
  • Should you be instructed to do so by emergency officials, turn off main utilities and valves.
  • Do not attempt to operate or even touch electrical equipment that is in standing water.
  • Avoid any contact with flood water.  The water may be contaminated with raw sewage, petrochemicals (e.g., oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, etc.), and harmful microbes.
    • Be mindful of children as they may attempt to play in flood waters.
  • Do not walk through moving water.  As little as six inches of moving water can make a person fall.  Two feet of rushing water can move a vehicle such as a car or light truck.
  • If a mandatory evacuation order is issued and it is safe to go, do so without delay.

Survival Tips for Floods

Survival Tips for After a Flooding Event

After a flood has occurred, there are important steps to take in recovery in addition to the steps outlined in the previous section.

  • Only return home or to your place of business when authorities have stated it is safe to do so.
  • If the power is still out, only use flashlights when entering your home or business as flammable material may be present.
  • Continue to monitor the radio and other media sources for updates.
  • Stay out of any structures still surrounded by flood waters.
  • Note that damaged sewage and septic systems are very dangerous to human life.  They should be repaired as soon as possible.
  • Stay clear of downed power lines and report any to the electrical company or cooperative.
  • Thoroughly clean and disinfect any article that came in contact with flood water.  Discard articles that cannot be properly cleaned.
  • Do not consume any food, beverage, or tobacco product that came in contact with flood waters as they are likely contaminated.
    • If absolutely necessary, drinking water may be made safe by boiling and filtering.

While floods are a daunting challenge, with the right preparations and know how, one can protect their life and property.  If the reader would like to discuss floods, survival tips or any other disaster, consider joining the free forum.  Sign up is quick and easy.


  1. Are you ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (pp. 55-57). (2002). Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
  2. Public Safety Canada: Floods. (2014, March 4). Retrieved February 19, 2015, from
  3. Protecting Your Home and Property from Flood Damage: Mitigation Ideas for Reducing Flood Loss. (2010). United States: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
  4. NOAA’s National Weather Service. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2015, from
  5. Flood Safety. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2015, from
  6. Civil Defense Basics—Natural Disasters. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2015, from
  7. 6 Ways To Protect Your Home From Flooding | (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2015, from
  8. The National Flood Insurance Program | (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2015, from
  9. Missouri State Emergency Management Agency. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2015, from
  10. Floods. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from
  11. My Hazards Awareness Map. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from

survival tips

For some individuals, volunteers, and family groups wishing to be prepared, the licensed radio services (e.g., Amateur Radio, General Mobile Radio Service, et al.) are not an option.  Unlicensed services (e.g., Citizen Band, Family Radio Service, et al.) may be crowded, lack sufficient range, or be suffering from serious interference.  There is another option though:  Multi-Use Radio Service or MURS.

The Multi-Use Radio Service is a private, two-way, unlicensed radio service in the 151—154 MHz VHF spectrum range.  The service has five (5) channels available.*  In some respects, it is similar to Citizen Band and the Family Radio Service (FRS).  The service was originally established by the Federal Communications Commission in the year 2000.  Transmissions may be in the form of voice or data communications.  Unlike amateur radio, business-related radio traffic is allowed on the service.  Unfortunately, “store and forward” type operations are not permitted.  The use of radio repeaters is also not allowed on the service.  The maximum output power is two (2) watts.  As of 2014, Canada is reviewing the possibility of allowing MURS operations in the country.

Multi-Use Radio Service Cartoon

Benefits for Preparation:

  • The Multi-Use Radio service is unlicensed.  Any member of a group or family may use the technology.
  • The output power of 2 watts is four times that of the 0.5 watt limitation on the Family Radio Service.
  • Unlike the Family Radio Service, external antennas are permitted.  MURS antennas can be up to 60 feet above the ground.
  • A transmission range of up to ten (10) miles or more can be achieved with this technology.  Some sources report up to twenty (20) miles under ideal conditions.
  • Unlike Citizen Band, digital (data, telemetry, telecommand, RTTYS, fast Morse, etc.) modes may be utilized on this service.
  • Technologies exist (e.g., GoTenna) to turn an existing SmartPhone into a MURS unit.
  • The cost of transceivers are, generally, low when compared to other services.

Limitations of the Multi-use Radio Service

  • The maximum output power is lower than Citizen Band and the General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS).
  • Unlike Amateur Radio, MURS units may not be connected to the public telephone system.
  • Repeater operations are not an option on this service.
  • The service is limited to five channels.
  • Storage and forward operations are not permitted on this service.


Multi-Use Radio Service transceivers can be found in handheld units, base stations, wireless public address units, remote switches, and other devices.  A wireless system can be tailored for the family or group wishing to stay in communication during a disaster.

Hopefully this guide has provided the reader with a solid overview of the  Multi-Use Radio Service or MURS.  If one wishes to discuss emergency preparedness, offers a forum to ask questions and obtain up-to-date information on all that is disaster-related.  Sign up is quick, easy, and totally free.


  1. Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS). (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from
  2. Silver, H. (2005). Two-way Radios & Scanners for Dummies (p. 110). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley.
  3. Spectrum Allocation and Utilization Policy Regarding the Use of Certain Frequency Bands Below 1.7 GHz for a Range of Radio Applications. (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from$FILE/sp17-ps17-eng.pdf
  4. Jones, J. (2007). Emergency Communications. In Preparing for the Worst: A Comprehensive Guide to Protecting Your Family from Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters, and Other Catastrophes (p. 180). Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger Security International.
  5. Horak, R. (2008). Webster’s New World Telecom Dictionary (1., Auflage ed., p. 327). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  6. PART 95—PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES. (n.d.). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from
  7. Buttars, R. (2013). Personal Radio Communications.

* MURS Channels

Channel Frequency Channel Name
1 151.820 MHz None
2 151.880 MHz None
3 151.940 MHz None
4 154.570 MHz Blue Dot (Business)
5 154.600 MHz Green Dot  (Business)


multi use radio service

Growing up in a prepared household these are a few of the tips I learned from my parents about preparing children for a disaster.  I have started to teach my daughter these as well, even though she is 18 months.

#1 – Start teaching them now.
It is never too early to start teaching kids how to be prepared and survive.  My father worked in several types of emergency services and my mother worked with emergency support services as a volunteer.  One of their favorite stories is that by the time I was three, I knew how to use a two-way radio.  When I was five, I could tie a sling to a wounded arm, better than most of the adult students in their first aid classes.  By eight, I could build a snow shelter and make a shelter in the forest.  There are many cases where a small child saved an adult’s life because they were taught what to do at a very early age.

#2 – Practice with your family. Kids need to have things repeated, and repeated, and repeated, and repeated.  Think about how many times they hear the ABCs.  The reason I could do first aid at such a young age was because my parents had to take me with them when they taught classes.  In school, we practice fire drills each month.  The reason is that with practice, it becomes automatic.  Do the same at home when preparing children for a disaster.  Yes, my family had home fire drills, including when friends stayed over.  I even had pop quizzes on emergency information.  Give rewards, verbal or physical, when they do good to encourage them to continue learning.  I had a sticker chart for chores, schoolwork, and emergency stuff.

#3 – Show them that this is important and serious. Show them that you take this seriously by being serious when you talk about being prepared.  It can kind of be made to be fun, but let them know that there is a reason for this information and the reason is that you want them to be safe, because you love them.

There were many times I remember Dad coming home from work and just looking at me and asking me questions like  “If there is a fire, where do you go?”  (Mailbox)  “Do you wait to find Mommy or Daddy?”  (No)  “If someone tries to take you, what do you yell?”  (“I don’t know you”, then “get away from me” as loud as I can.)  “What is the phrase they will tell you if they were sent by us?”  (Something about Dr. Who, it rotated)  or “If someone breaks into the house, what should you do?”  (Dial 911, leave phone off the hook, as I go to my room to hide in my big messy closet, unless I can get out the backdoor).   Even without him telling me, I knew a kid was hurt or died that day because they did not know the answers. My parents really took preparing children for a disaster seriously!

#4 – Teach them where equipment is in your house
. I can still tell you where the fire extinguisher, first aid kit, band-aids, gauze bandages, roller bandages, and radios were in each of our houses growing up.  I remember one time, while Dad was gone, my mom cut herself badly while pruning.  She came into the house yelling for me, then laid down on the bathroom floor.  I got what was needed and started to apply first aid while making sure she did not go into shock.  I think I was about 10 at the time.

#5 – Make first aid kits and emergency equipment a habit.  While in school, I had a basic first aid kit, safety pins, and flashlight in my backpack.  It was part of my back-to-school supplies.  I have a feeling they were even kept in my diaper bag, although I don’t know for sure.  I know these supplies are in my daughter’s diaper bag, which my daycare provider says is the most organized and prepared bag she has seen.  As an adult, I have the same in my purse, as well as my classroom.  I knew having a fire extinguisher was important, because one was always outside my bedroom door.  This meant that when I went away to college I got one on my first shopping trip.

#6 – Visitors to the house need to know emergency procedures as well.  The first time someone came to spend the night at my house, they were told our emergency meeting place.  As my parents always said, “If they are staying at our house, their safety is our responsibility.”  They were also told what to do if I had low blood sugar, as I am diabetic.

#7 – Your kids will not always be with you. Ask about where they would go if a fire happened while they were spending the night at a friend’s house or at the babysitter’s.  Make them think about how to get out of various locations and where to go so that it becomes a habit.  I tended to ask people where their meeting place was the first time I stayed at someone’s house, so it got them thinking about emergency preparedness as well.

End thoughts

Having a prepared kid doesn’t mean you don’t have to worry.  You are a parent so of course you will worry.  What it does mean is that you will not have to spend valuable time giving directions, which they won’t hear, to a stressed out stubborn kid, when you are stressed yourself.

Hopefully you will never have to find out, but training your kid could save their or someone else’s life.  It will also put a better head on their shoulders when they are away from you.  At the very least, it will give them habits to make them prepared adults. Preparing children for a disaster should be as important as teaching your child how to ride a bike.

Rebecca Amela

Rebecca is a school teacher and has been involved with the American Red Cross and other community preparedness organizations. She is married, has a daughter, a son on the way, and lives in the Northwest. When not teaching, her hobbies include crafts, sewing, and the science fiction genre.

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preparing children for a disaster

The tornado, also known as twisters and cyclones, is the most violent storm in nature, and tornado preparedness in regions prone to them is essential.  It is a rotating column of air that is in contact with the ground and a cumulonimbus cloud.  The majority of tornadoes have wind speeds of under 110 miles per hour, but some can reach 300 miles per hour.  Very extreme tornadoes can stretch to more than two miles wide, though most are smaller.  Tornadoes may accompany hurricanes and other tropical storms as they move inland.  Most tornadoes move Southwest to Northeast, but they can move in any direction.  Tornadoes can develop quickly so they may strike with little or no warning.  Most twisters occur east of the Rocky Mountains, though every state has some risk.  Every year, on average, twisters kill around 60 people and cause $400 million dollars in damage.  The risk to life, limb, and property can be mitigated against with proper tornado readiness though.  The following guide offers some tips for doing just that.

Tornado Preparedness – Know the Signs of an Impending Tornado

Tornadoes may gather and strike with little or no advanced warning which highlights the need for advance tornado preparedness.  However, before a tornado hits:

  • An unusual black or green color to the sky may indicate a tornado is coming.
  • The wind may quiet down and the air may become very still.  The calm may be preceded by hail or heavy rainfall.
  • A loud roaring sound may be heard.  Tornadoes have been described as sounding like a jet engine, a locomotive, or a strong waterfall.
  • A debris cloud may indicate the location of a tornado, even if the characteristic funnel is not seen yet.
  • Before dirt and debris are picked up, the tornado may appear transparent.
  • Tornadoes can accompany tropical storms, so be on guard as they make landfall.

Receive Tornado Alerts

Emergency Alert System for Tornado Preparedness

Emergency Alert System

There are a number of ways to be alerted of a coming storm.  These include:

  • Tune into NOAA Weather Radio.  NOAA will provide alerts of dangerous weather patterns.
  • If you use a mobile device, consider installing a Tornado alert app.  Both free and paid solutions are available for Apple iOS and Google Android.
  • If you community has a siren installed, know the sound and heed the warning.
  • Commercial radio and television broadcasts can also be monitored.

When a Tornado Warning Sounds

If a tornado strikes, seek shelter IMMEDIATELY.   Depending on where you are:

  • If in a structure (e.g., home, school, factory, hospital, office, et al.), go to a pre-designated shelter area such as the basement, safe room, storm cellar, fallout shelter, etc.  If there is no basement or lower level, get the center of an interior room.  If in a school, do not shelter in a auditorium, cafeteria, or gymnasium.  Do not use elevators as power may fail.
  • If in a passenger vehicle, stop, get out of the vehicle, and lie flat in a ditch or other low area.  Do not get under your vehicle.  It is not advisable to take shelter under a bridge.
  • If in a mobile home or trailer, leave immediately and seek shelter in a nearby building or storm shelter.  If caught outside with no shelter, lie flat in a depression or ditch, but be aware of possible flooding.  Cover your head and neck from flying debris.
  • Never attempt to outrun a tornado on foot or in a vehicle.

A big part of tornado preparedness is planning – including knowing in advance where you will find shelter when one strikes.

Preparing for a Tornado Before One Strikes

Steps can be taken to before a tornado incident that can greatly reduce the possibility of injury.  These include:

  • Build a disaster kit and have it available in your home and/or place of business.
  • Invest in a NOAA Weather Radio.
  • Review the materials available from the American Red Cross on tornado preparedness.  The ARC also has a free mobile app for iOS and Android that provides a great deal of training and information on the topic.
  • If the means are available, the best protect would be to install a safe room in your home or business.  These may be built in existing structures or separately.
  • Consider obtaining or installing a backup generator in the event of extended power outages.

Additional details on tornado readiness are available on the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s website, and state and county level emergency organizations.  Issues related to tornado preparedness may also be discussed on the forum.  Sign up is quick, easy, and totally free.


  1. The Online Tornado FAQ (by Roger Edwards, SPC). (2015, January 25). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from
  2. Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business (3rd ed.). (2008). Washington DC: FEMA.
  3. Allaby, M. (1997). Tornadoes. New York: Facts On File.
  4. Tornadoes. (2014, April 30). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from
  5. Are you ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness (pp. 7, 57-65). (2002). Washington, D.C.: FEMA.
  6. U.S. Tornadoes as Deadly, Costly as Hurricanes: Lloyd’s. (2013, February 13). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from
  7. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2015, from
  8. Storm Aware. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from
  9. Governor’s Office of Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness | State of Louisiana. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from
  10. Safety in Schools. (2011, September 1). Retrieved February 11, 2015, from
  11. Tornado Preparedness, from

Imagine for a moment your family is caught in the middle of a major disaster.  The phone lines are dead.  The cellular service is jammed.  The power is out and even with a generator there is no connection to the Internet.  Satellite phones are not available for use.  You need a way to communicate with all the members of the family as you coordinate bugging out or working to recover from the disaster.  How do you communicate in the local area with unlicensed family members?  There are a few options, but one available since 1996, is the Family Radio Service (FRS).  The following is an introductory guide to the service brought to you by

The Family Radio Service is a two-way, voice and digital radio service that is designed for families and other groups to communicate over short distances.  No license is needed to operate on this service.  FRS radios have fourteen (14) channels.  The first seven are shared with the General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS), while the next seven are exclusive to FRS.  GMRS transmissions may not be conducted on channels eight through fourteen.*  Unlike amateur radio, FRS radios may also be used by business entities and related organizations.  It may be used by any person of any age in the United States, except for official representatives of foreign governments.  Very similar services exist in Canada and Mexico.

Benefits of Family Radio Service for Disaster Preparation:

  • Transceivers are available nearly everywhere.  The cost of the units are, generally, the lowest of two-way radios.
  • Some units recharge from recharging stations, while others are powered via standard battery sizes.  Many may be powered by a car charger.
  • Unlicensed citizens may utilize the service.  There are no age restrictions.
  • Most units are small, walkie-talkie type which are easy to carry and operate.  There are larger, base-station type units with “whip” antennas as well.
  • FRS is on the UHF band and does not suffer from the interference such as that found on citizen band.
  • The course, non-family appropriate conversations often heard on citizen band are generally not found on FRS.
  • Unlike other services, such as CB, privacy tone codes, achieved via sub-audible tone squelch, can be utilized on FRS.  This helps filter out other operator’s conversations.
  • Business-related radio traffic is permitted.
  • They can be used at other times to easily communicate during events, while hiking, on the water, skiing or just for fun

Limitations of the Family Radio Service:

  • The power output level is very low at 0.5 watts.
  • Actual communication ranges generally are much lower than those stated by transceiver manufacturers.  A range of a third of a mile to a mile is to be expected in real world operation.
  • External antennas may not be utilized on FRS radios.  Only permanently attached antennas are available.  External antennas may be used on the similar, licensed GMRS bands, however.
  • Unlike GMRS or amateur radio, duplex, repeater operation is forbidden.
  • Connecting FRS radios with the telephone network is also not allowed.
Old Walkie-Talkies were a bit larger than Family Radio Service devices

Old Walkie-Talkies were a bit larger than Family Radio Service devices


If a family, or other social unit, decides to utilize this radio service, it is important to familiarize oneself and prepare the equipment now.  Some suggestions would be:

  • Decide on a standard family frequency.  Also plan on a fall back frequency should that one not be available.
  • Choose a privacy code for your family unit.  While it will not prevent eavesdropping, it will cut down on the unnecessary interference from other operators.
  • Be sure to regularly check your radios to insure they are powered and in good working condition.  During a disaster is no time to find out a transceiver is inoperable.
  • FRS radio operations can be a fun pastime while the family is enjoying other activities, such as camping, hiking, and picnicking.  Doing so will help both adults and children become familiar with operating their radios for a possibly more stressful time.

Hopefully this introductory text will help the reader have a better grasp of the FRS service and how it may play a roll in disaster preparedness.  Should the reader wish to learn more about disaster-related communications, please consider joining the forum.  Sign up is quick, easy, and free.


  1. Family Radio Service (FRS). (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2014, from
  2. Jones, J. (2007). Emergency Communications. In Preparing for the Worst: A Comprehensive Guide to Protecting Your family from Terrorist Attacks, Natural Disasters, and Other Catastrophes (p. 179). Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger Security International.
  3. Buttars, R. (2014). General Mobile Radio and Family Radio Service Handbook.
  4. Ford, S. (2005). Emergency Communication Handbook (pp. 16-3). Newington, CT: American Radio Relay League.
  5. FRS radio privacy tone list | (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2014, from
  6. FRS/GMRS combined channel chart. (n.d.). Retrieved December 21, 2014, from

* FRS Channels

Channel Frequency (MHz) Notation
1 462.5625 Shared with the GMRS.
2 462.5875 Shared with the GMRS.
3 462.6125 Shared with the GMRS.
4 462.6375 Shared with the GMRS.
5 462.6625 Shared with the GMRS.
6 462.6875 Shared with the GMRS.
7 462.7125 Shared with the GMRS.
8 467.5625 FRS only.
9 467.5875 FRS only.
10 467.6125 FRS only.
11 467.6375 FRS only.
12 467.6625 FRS only.
13 467.6875 FRS only.
14 467.7125 FRS only.


family radio service